Wednesday, November 29, 2006

White-Hot Evidence of Demolition

NIST describes a "bright white" flame in World Trade Center 2 (the South Tower) shortly before it collapsed:
An unusual flame is visible within this fire. In the upper photograph in Figure 9-44 a very bright WHITE flame, as opposed to the typical yellow or orange surrounding flames, which is generating a plume of white smoke, stands out. The intensity of this flame is considerably brighter than normal flames.
(p. 48).

Color is the result of temperature:

Metal Temperature by Color
Color Scale of Temperature
color approximate temperature
color Temperature
°F °C K
°C K
faint red 930 500 770
incipient red heat 500 - 550 770 - 820
blood red 1075 580 855
dark red heat 650 - 750 920 - 1020
dark cherry 1175 635 910
bright red heat 850 - 950 1120 - 1220
medium cherry 1275 0690 0965
yellowish red heat 1050 - 1150 1320 - 1420
cherry 1375 0745 1020
incipient white heat 1250 - 1350 1520 - 1620
bright cherry 1450 0790 1060
white heat 1450 - 1550 1720 - 1820
salmon 1550 0845 1115

["This table is the result of an effort to interpret in terms of thermometric readings, the common expressions used in describing temperatures. It is obvious that these values are only approximations."]
dark orange 1630 0890 1160
orange 1725 0940 1215
lemon 1830 1000 1270
light yellow 1975 1080 1355
white 2200 1205 1480

Sources: Process Associates of America
& Handbook of Chemistry & Physics, 1924

The "very bright white flame" observed by NIST, under the most generous possible interpretation, was really "light yellow" on the chart on the left or "incipient white" in the chart on the right.

So, bottom line, the flame was at least 1975 degrees Fahrenheit.

See also this chart:

How Hot Were the Fires?

Were the fires in the Twin Towers that hot?

Well, NIST itself says that paint tests indicated low steel temps -- 480 Fahrenheit -- "despite pre-collapse exposure to fire". NIST also said that microstructure tests showed no steel reached critical (half-strength) values of 600 Celsius (1112 degrees Fahrenheit) for any significant time.

And Thomas Eager, a Professor of Materials Engineering and Engineering Systems at MIT and a defender of the official story, concluded that the temperatures in the Twin Towers never exceeded 800 Celsius (1472 degrees Fahrenheit). Additional evidence that the fires were not that hot is here.

Conclusion: The flames produced by normal means in the Twin Towers did not get up to 1975 degrees Fahrenheit, and the WTC fires were not hot enough to produce a observed white-to-bright-yellow flame without the use of explosives.

Here's a celsius-fahrenheit calculator to help you with conversions.


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